Obstetrics and Gynaecology

What is Obstetrics?

Obstetrics is the field of study concentrated on pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period. As a medical specialty, obstetrics is combined with gynecology under the discipline known as obstetrics and gynecology (OB/GYN), which is a surgical field.

What is Gynaecology?

Gynaecology is the medical practice dealing with the health of the female reproductive system. Almost all modern gynaecologists are also obstetricians. In many areas, the specialities of gynaecology and obstetrics encompasses the two subspecialties of obstetrics covering pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period and gynecology covering the health of the female reproductive systemvagina, uterus, ovaries, and breasts.

Conditions deals with Gynaecologist:

  • Cancer and pre-cancerous diseases of the reproductive organs including ovaries, Fallopian tubes, uterus, cervix, vagina, and vulva
  • Absent menstrual periods
  • Infertility
  • Infections of vagina, cervix and uterus
  • Family planning
  • Premenstrual Syndrome


Vaginal Delivery:

A vaginal delivery is the birth of babies in humans through the vagina. The average length of a hospital stay for a normal vaginal delivery is 36–48 hours. With a surgical cut to widen the vaginal canal to enable vaginal birth, the stay is 48–60 hours.

Type of Vaginal Delivery:

  • A spontaneous vaginal delivery (SVD) occurs when a pregnant female goes into labor without the use of drugs or techniques to induce labor, and delivers her baby in the normal manner
  • An assisted vaginal delivery (AVD) or instrumental vaginal delivery occurs when a pregnant female goes into labor , and requires the use of special instruments such as forceps or a vacuum extractor to deliver her baby vaginally.
  • An induced vaginal delivery is a delivery involving labor induction, where drugs or manual techniques are used to initiate the process of labor.
  • A normal vaginal delivery (NVD) is a vaginal delivery, whether or not assisted or induced, usually used in statistics or studies to contrast with a delivery by cesarean section.


Caesarean Delivery:

Caesarean section, also known as C-section, or caesarean delivery, is the surgical procedure by which one or more babies are delivered through an incision in the mother's abdomen, often performed because vaginal delivery would put the baby or mother at risk. Reasons for the operation include obstructed labor, twin pregnancy, high blood pressure in the mother, breech birth, and problems with the placenta or umbilical cord. A caesarean delivery may be performed based upon the shape of the mother's pelvis or history of a previous C-section.

Type of Caesarean Section:

  • A lower segment incision – will be used wherever possible. This is a horizontal cut through the abdomen and a horizontal cut through the lower part of the uterus, sometimes known as a ‘bikini line’ incision.

  • A Classical Iincision – refers to a vertical cut on the uterus. The cut on the abdomen may be horizontal or vertical. This type of incision is usually only used for extreme emergencies or in specific situations, such as if the placenta is lying very low, if your baby is lying sideways or if your baby is very small.