Respiratory Medicine

Respiratory System

The respiratory system is a biological system consisting of specific organs and structures used for gas exchange in animals and plants. The anatomy and physiology that make this happen varies greatly, depending on the size of the organism, the environment in which it lives and its evolutionary history.

Respiratory Diseases

  • Asthma

Asthma is a long-term inflammatory disease of the airways of the lungs. It is characterized by variable and recurring symptoms, reversible airflow obstruction, and easily triggered bronchospasm. Symptoms include episodes of wheezing, coughing, chest tightness, and shortness of breath. These may occur a few times a day or a few times per week. Depending on the person, asthma symptoms may become worse at night or with exercise.

  • Obstructive Lung Disease

Asthma, chronic bronchitis, bronchiectasis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are all obstructive lung diseases characterised by airway obstruction. Obstructive lung diseases are often identified because of symptoms and diagnosed with pulmonary function tests such as spirometry. Many obstructive lung diseases are managed by avoiding triggers (such as dust mites or smoking), with symptom control such as bronchodilators, and with suppression of inflammation (such as through corticosteroids) in severe case

  • Restrictive Lung Disease

Restrictive lung diseases are a category of respiratory disease characterized by a loss of lung compliance, causing incomplete lung expansion and increased lung stiffness, such as in infants with respiratory distress syndrome. Restrictive lung diseases can be divided into two categories: those caused by intrinsic factors and those caused by extrinsic factors. Restrictive lung diseases yielding from intrinsic factors occur within the lungs themselves, such as tissue death due to inflammation or toxins.

  • Chronic Respiratory Disease

Chronic respiratory diseases (CRDs) are long-term diseases of the airways and other structures of the lung. They are characterized by a high inflammatory cell recruitment and/or destructive cycle of infection. Some of the most common are asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and acute respiratory distress syndrome. There are various forms of treatment that help dilate major air passages and improve shortness of breath can help control symptoms and increase the quality of life.

  • Respiratory Tract Infection

- Upper respiratory tract infection

An upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) is an illness caused by an acute infection, which involves the upper respiratory tract, including the nose, sinuses, pharynx, or larynx.

- Lower respiratory tract infection

Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) is a term often used as a synonym for pneumonia but can also be applied to other types of infection including lung abscess and acute bronchitis. Symptoms include shortness of breath, weakness, fever, coughing and fatigue. A routine chest X-ray is not always necessary for people who have symptoms of a lower respiratory tract infection.