Urology

The urinary system consists of the kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra. The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs located below the ribs, in the upper abdomen. The kidneys remove excess water and waste from the body, maintain correct balance of salts and other substances in the blood. The kidneys also produce hormones to maintain the calcium balance and involved in the formation of red blood cells. Narrow tubes called ureters acts as conduits for urine, delivering it to the urinary bladder. The urine is finally expelled via the urethra.

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Kidney Stone

Kidney stones are an ancient health problem. Stones develop from crystals that separate from urine and build up. If these remain small, they may travel down from the kidney down the ureters and into the bladder, passing out in the urine. However, sometimes they build up and get bigger, causing a kidney stone. Gallstones and kidney stones are NOT related. They formed in different parts of the body. Someone with a gallstone is not necessarily more likely to develop kidney stones and vice versa.

What Causes Kidney Stone?

A person with a strong family history of kidney stones may be more likely to develop kidney stones. Urinary tract infections, medical conditions such as gout / hyperuricaemia and certain kidney conditions such as renal tubular acidosis are linked to stone formation.
Kidney Stones - Treatment



What is URS?

Uterus copy or URS is a special very small telescope that passed through the urethra, bladder and up the ureter to either examine the ureter or to remove a stone in the ureter. The telescope may be rigid or flexible. If this is done to remove a stone, then a small metal probe can be passed through a channel in the telescope to break up the stone.

This is a minimally invasive procedure that makes use of the natural passage in the body; there are no cuts or incisions to the skin. It is a very safe and well tolerated procedure and can be done under either spinal or general anesthesia.


Reason of URS?

  1. To examine the ureter
  2. To remove a stone stuck in the lower or mid ureter. If the stone is below the pelvic bones, then ESWL is not possible as the bones are in the way and you may need to have the URS.